The below references were taken from 123 published papers.  These references represent the initial scientific research, the concepts behind altering the sex ratio, the clinical results and the social and demographic history of people who elect to use this technology for a wanted sex selected child.

  1. Ericsson R J and Ericsson SA. Human sex preselection: compilation of worldwide clinical results using the albumin method. Today's Therapeutic Trends 16(2):107-119,1998.
  2. Beernink FJ, Dmowski WP and Ericsson RJ. Sex preselection of sperm. Fertil. Steril. 59(2):382-386, 1993.
  3. Ericsson SA and Ericsson RJ. Couples with exclusively female offspring have an increased probability of a male child after using male sex preselection. Hum. Reprod. 7(3):372-373, 1992.
  4. Rose GA and Wong A. Experiences in Hong Kong with the theory and practice of the albumin column method of sperm separation for sex selection. Hum. Reprod.13(1):146-149, 1998.
  5. Pyrzak R. Separation of X- and Y-bearing human spermatozoa using albumin gradients. Hum. Reprod. 9(10):1788-1790. 1994.
  6. Claassens OE, Oosthuizen CJ, Brusnicky J, Franken DR and Kruger TF. Fluorescent in situ hybridization evaluation of human Y-bearing spermatozoa separated by albumin density gradients. Fert. Steril. 63(2):417-418. 1995.
  7. Ericsson RJ. Sex selection via albumin columns: 20 years of results. Hum. Reprod. 9(10):1787-788,1994.
  8. Ericsson RJ, Langevin CN and Nishino M. Isolation of fractions rich in human Y sperm. Nature 246: 421-424, 1973.
  9. Cui Ke-hui. Size differences between human X and Y spermatozoa and prefertilization diagnosis. Molecular Hum. Reprod. 3(1):61-67, 1997.
  10. Liu P and Rose GA. Social aspects of >800 couples coming forward for gender selection of their children.  Hum. Reprod. 10(4):968-971, 1995.
  11. Ericsson RJ and Ericsson SA. Sex Ratios. In: Knobil E, Neill JD (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Reproduction. Academic Press, CA. Volume 4, pages 431-437, 1999.
  12. Silverman AY, Stephens SR, Drouin MT, Zack RG, Osborne J and Ericsson SA. Female sex selection using clomiphene citrate and albumin separation of sperm. Hum. Reprod. 17(5):1254-1256. 2002.





Clinical results based on a total of 2,752 births



1 - Infertility

3 - Male Sex Selection

2 - Female Sex Selection with clomid (7.2% Twins*)

Modified 3 - Male Sex Selection


* 45 of 49 couples with twins had at least one girl (92%) - 27 sets of twins F/F, 16 M/F, 4 M/M, 2F/Abort. – over all 78% female.