(Field Tested on Three Continents to Control Rodents)
EPIBLOC, the only rodenticide that controls Rattus norvegicus (Norway or common brown rat) by three mechanisms, was recently re-registered by EPA (Reg. No. 42882-2). The first non-anticoagulant active ingredient rodenticide to be registered by EPA in more than ten years.
Rat Toxicant-Sterilant
The Norway rat has traveled with mankind around the world. Human environments  are usually more than adequate  for this destructive rodent. Disease, food spoilage and material damage caused by rats total in the billions of dollars each year. Not that man has neglected to place restraints on rat populations; near success has given overconfidence  because  the rat's reproductive capabilities soon bring numbers back to free ranging  populations. One approach to combat staying powers of the rat would be to kill a majority of animals and make the remaining sterile through lethal and sublethal doses of the same bait. This is now possible with EPIBLOC.
EPIBLOC as a Sterilant
EPIBLOC (alpha-chlorohydrin) was first discovered as a male antifertility agent (reversible infertility). Later, EPIBLOC was shown to work as a sterilant (nonreversible sterility) in the MALE RAT ONLY. And field trial data proved EPIBLOC to be also an effective acute toxicant. Therefore, EPIBLOC works as: (i) an acute toxicant (lethal dose); or (ii) a sterilant to adult males (sublethal dose); or (iii) an antifertility chemical (one-tenth the lethal dose). No other rodent control chemical offers the possibility of three control mechanisms in one feeding of treated bait.
EPIBLOC has been widely tested in many species, including primates, for sterilant properties. None of the tested species showed this sterilant effect, except many species of rodents, even at doses that were eventually lethal. Although many showed the reversible antifertility effect (males infertile while on daily treatment) and several others, like the rabbit and mouse, did not respond at all. Species specificity is highly regarded when pests are to be chemically controlled. Since ONLY RATS are subject to this sterilant property, other tested nonpest species are safe from control by reproductive sterility. Those male rats made sterile by eating EPIBLOC continue to maintain normal social and sexual behavior. Loss of sex drive in sterile males would defeat the purpose of sterilizing them as they would not compete with fertile males for sexually receptive females. this is not the case with EPIBLOC-treated males.
EPIBLOC as a Toxicant
The desired goal in rat control is to immediately reduce population numbers. Acute toxicants are routinely used as an expedient to this end. Some acute rodenticides are also highly toxic to nontarget animals, while others work well on a one-time only basis. None have, however, met all of the necessary criteria for successful routine use. Anticoagulants replaced older acute toxicants as the most widely used type of rodenticide due to their good bait acceptance, relative safety to other species and efficacy in controlling rodents.
EPIBLOC is an acute toxicant in that rats die within 1- 5 days after a single baiting. Bait acceptance is required only initially as one baiting is sufficient to kill a high percentage of the population. Of the surviving adult males, most are sterile. EPIBLOC is and is not an acute toxicant: Yes, EPIBLOC causes death upon one feeding, but it is really an acute toxicant  with a secondary effect at a sublethal dose - a male sterilant.
EPIBLOC and Rat Control
Killing rats, even in high percentages of the population, will not necessarily control their numbers beyond six months to one year. A 90% death loss does dramatically reduce rat problems, but those remaining improve their reproductive performance to re-establish population numbers in a very short period. EPIBLOC offers the semi-biological control approach of a toxicant-sterilant. Baiting once with EPIBLOC brings the desired response of lower rat numbers and it also eliminates the reproductive rebound as most surviving males are sterile.
Chemosterilants have a deficiency of only sterilizing existing animals, with a loss in population numbers due to natural and accidental death and nonrecruitment of young. Toxicants have the deficiency of rarely bringing 100% death to a population thereby leaving some members to repopulate their decimated numbers. To  combine the two approaches is to acquire the strength of both without their inherent weaknesses.



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